The cocoa industry negatively impacts the environment across the whole value chain. The industry’s environmental effects range from local-scale deforestation and water pollution to global-scale greenhouse gas emissions Solutions include investing in farming techniques, reducing diesel use, and boosting consumer demand for certified cocoa.
Future food demands are projected to rise, yet deforestation compromises long term food security. The EU has the world’s second largest deforestation footprint, despite policies designed to promote sustainability. The complex interaction between EU and wider policy may be incentivising unnecessary deforestation, thus compromising the achievement of the sustainable development goals.
Deforestation has direct and indirect negative consequences that worsen the climate crisis. Despite past efforts, tropical forests, which play a critical role in counteracting climate change, continue to experience an alarming rate of loss. Agriculture is the biggest cause of deforestation across the globe, and in critical tropical regions. However, it is urbanisation that has largely driven deforestation in Europe.
Land use change refers to the change in function of an area of land. Since the 1960s, demand for food has resulted in an unprecedented rate of land use change. Land conversion for agriculture is a key driver of the current climate emergency.
The Farm to Fork strategy is a milestone EU policy framework that promotes the sustainable and just transition of food systems in the continent. The Farm to Fork strategy advocates environmentally sound practices, including chemical-free and organic agriculture, with neutral or positive environmental effects. Sceptics of the Farm to Fork strategy point to its conceptually ambiguity, lack of legal action, policy incoherence with EU agricultural policy, and implementation challenges.
Aquaculture describes the controlled farming of aquatic organisms, and has become an important part of food production in the modern world. Modern aquaculture began as a result of declining wild fish stocks from overfishing and growing populations. The two main forms of aquaculture are freshwater and marine aquaculture; within these two forms, there are a number of different methods used for a wide variety of aquatic species.
Food production would need to double by 2050 to meet growing demands, which could have devastating impacts for the environment. Land sharing and land sparing are two strategies most frequently used when designing agricultural landscapes.
Global food demand has been increasing over the course of the past century, leading to increased food production and, as a consequence, an increase in the environmental impact of intensified agriculture. Current trends show that demand will continue to increase, and production would need to double to meet the demand projected for 2050, which has important implications for the environment. A key question to ask is what exactly is driving this growing demand. In this article, I will discuss the observed drivers of increasing global food demand and how these tie into global food security.
Organic food production and consumption have skyrocketed in Europe. The EU organic regulation was created in 1991, and its mandatory logo came into force in 2010 The main aim of the EU organic regulation is to guarantee consumer confidence and ensure fair competition